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International Churches of Christ (ICC) * Boston Movement * Crossroads Movement

REVEAL: Links to Other Pages of Interest

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Information from Organizations

o Boston University: Warning!! The Boston (International) Church of Christ: A Review of History and Sanctions at Boston University
The Dean of Students at Boston University, Robert Thornberg, has been an outspoken critic of the ICC for many years. This page was prepared under his direction, and describes the experiences of his office with the Boston Church of Christ's Campus Ministry at Boston University, its abuses, and the actions taken because of them.

Reviewed 7/1/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o German Evangelical/Lutheran Church: International Churches of Christ (ICoC)/ Internationale Gemeinden Christi
A site in German with extensive and relatively recent information about the ICC, covering the usual issues of church control over members's lives (discipling), dating, tithing, and the rest, in addition to some theological material where Lutheran doctrines disagree with those of the ICC. Georg Otto Schmid wrote the original article in 1994 and he or someone else revised it in 1997.

Reviewed 6/01/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/01/98

o International Church of Christ Study Series
The full texts of several of the "First Principles" study series used by the International Churches of Christ.

Reviewed 6/12/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/12/98

o Let Us Reason Ministries: International Church of Christ Articles
An Evangelical Protestant counter-cult ministry with a series of articles on the ICC which focus on theological issues from their perspective. ICC members and former members who remain Evangelical Protestants will probably find this material useful.

Reviewed 10/10/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 10/10/98

o New Covenant Publications: A CounterCult Ministry
This is a site owned by an evangelical Christian group. Their material tends to focus on theological rather than psychological issues, but they have a collection of "Quotes from ICC leaders" which are quite useful.

Reviewed 6/01/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/01/98

o Parklawn Baptist Church: Sermon by Rev. Darryl Dash on the ICC
A sermon by the pastor of Parklawn Baptist Church in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the ICC, in which he refers to Ryerson University's banning of the Toronto Church of Christ from campus. The history and doctrinal material are out of date -- it appears that the Rev. Dash's knowledge of the ICC stops with 1986 or thereabouts, before the Great Reconstructions of 1987. But much of what he says still applies.

Reviewed 6/01/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/01/98

o Probe Ministries: The Boston Church
An article by Russ Wise of Probe Ministries, an evangelical Christian countercult group. The article has some errors in fact, but presents the issues most evangelical Protestants have with the ICC fairly well.

Reviewed 6/25/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/25/98

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Information from Individuals

RightCyberUp was created by Dave Anderson, a one-time recruit of the Minneapolis/St. Paul Church of Christ and New York City Church of Christ. RightCyberUp explores in detail ethical, psychological, and theological aspects of the ICC with a focus on recovery.

Reviewed 6/12/02 by Dave Anderson
Link last verified 6/12/02

o REVEAL: The Crisis Line [Nouvelle version in français]
Someone with an email address of <> did a translation of an older version of the REVEAL Crisis Line in French. A French-speaking colleague who reviewed it reports that the translation is accurate. So those who understand French better than English may find this a useful resource.

Reviewed 4/05/00 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 4/05/00

o Justin Cooke: The International Churches of Christ
Justin Cooke is a sociology student at the University of Virginia who did a class project on the ICC, and posted the results of his research on the WWW. This page contains a bunch of dates, times, and facts about the ICC -- useful.

Reviewed 7/21/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Roy Davison: Errors of Hierarchical Discipleship: Crossroadism and the Worldwide Boston Hierarchy Weighed and Found Wanting
Davison is a minister for the mainline Churches of Christ, and this paper represents the growing consensus within the more conservative mainline Churches of Christ in the late 1980s about the nature and practices of the discipling movement, or "Crossroadism", as it was often called at the time in those circles. Lots of partisan theological content, but useful nonetheless.

Reviewed 1/31/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Carol Giambalvo: Cult Information and Recovery
Carol Giambalvo is a former member of a psychological cult, est, and an exit counselor and cult researcher with many years experience. Her site includes the text of an interesting article she wrote for the old Cult Awareness Network (CAN) newsletter in 1989 on the Crossroad Church of Christ's disavowal of Kip McKean and the Boston movement. In addition, it includes a wealth of valuable information on thought reform and other cult issues in general.

Reviewed 2/11/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Steven Hassan: Exit Counselor and Mind Control Specialist
Steve Hassan, a licensed therapist and former member of the Unification Church (Moonies), has for the past twenty years played a leading role in applying the research of Robert Lifton and other psychologists specializing in the field of mind control, research originally done on prisoners of war, to cults. This has enabled cult opponents to define a cult, not by what it believes (its theology), but by how it behaves (its psychological characteristics). This has enabled cult opponents to define cults without reference to a particular religious orthodoxy, and to distinguish between destructive cults and unorthodox new religions which do not use psychologically abusive techniques. This page is full of valuable information on cults in general, and contains some information on the ICC in particular.

Reviewed 2/21/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Rich Measures: The Somis Library
This is a collection of works about or relevant to the ICC. It contains the full text of an extensive study of the Boston Church of Christ in the mid-1980s, in which Meyer's Brigg (MBTI) personality assessment tests were given to a group of ICC members and a control group of members from mainline Churches of Christ. The results are enlightening, and presented in full detail in this book. Dr. Yeakley kindly gave Rich Measures <>, who hosts this site and put the book into HTML format, permission to post it. It also contains Joseph Byczko's article, The Discipling Movement: Is it Biblical?. Other work is added at irregular intervals, and the library also contains material about Christianity in general.

Reviewed 2/5/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Christian Perst: Neues Wagen - Leben gestalten, Sekten und autoritaere Gruppen
Christian Perst's wife was recruited by the Gemeinde Christi München, the Munich Church of Christ. On this page they tell the story of their encounter with the ICC in Germany, and provide a considerable amount of information in German about the ICC and other authoritarian groups.

Reviewed 10/1/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 8/11/02

o Jay Daniel Robertson: Chez Jay -- The International Churches of Christ/Cult
A member of the mainline (non-ICC) Santa Barbara Church of Christ has posted some information about the ICC. I didn't find information here that I couldn't find elsewhere, but this page is interesting in that it reflects a rather hard-line mainline Church of Christ member's response to the ICC.

Reviewed 7/21/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Rick Ross: Kip McKean's International Church of Christ
Rick Ross is a well-known deprogrammer with many years experience with the ICC and other cults. I understand that he has, in the last few years, quit participating in involuntary interventions. This page has a lot of resources, some of them not available elsewhere on the WWW. In particular, the texts of a number of original letters involving the ICC and articles about it are posted here. Recommended. I do, however, suggest turning your computer's speaker WAAAAYYY down before accessing the site -- the background music is a bit much.

Reviewed 7/21/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Joanne Ruhland: RESOURCE -- An Information-Based Site
Joanne Ruhland, who describes herself as a non-Baptist attending a "very UnBaptist" Baptist church<grin>, has been assisting current and former members of a number of different cults for many years. She has produced a site with a considerable amount of valuable information and links to many other useful sites on the ICC, cults in general, and recovery from membership in cults. Recommended.

Reviewed 7/21/97 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 5/29/98

o Helmut Schmidt: Verwirrspiel
Helmut Schmidt's warning, in German, about the International Churches of Christ and specifically the Berlin affiliate.

Reviewed 6/3/98 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 6/3/98

o Qin Wang: The International Churches of Christ
An paper written by Qin Wang, a student at the University of Pennsylvania, for the "Introduction to Christianity" class. A good introduction to the ICC for people who have never encountered it before -- if you know nothing or very little about the ICC, start here.

Reviewed 10/12/96 by Catherine Hampton <>
Link last verified 1/06/00

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